Nerve damage or injury in the central or peripheral nervous systems can result in neuropathic pain.
Chronic pain causes numbness and tingling in some persons, while it causes a sharp, scorching sensation in others.
Injury or disease can kill nerve fibers, disrupting pain signals to and from other parts of the body.
Existing signals may be misunderstood as a result of neuropathic pain. Create new signals or inhibit the transmission of current ones. Non-pain signals can also be made unpleasant at times. These problems can cause a variety of unpleasant symptoms, ranging from moderate to severe.
As a result of neurological impairment, people’s feelings of touch, temperature, movement, and pressure may alter.
This page describes the causes, forms, and symptoms of neuropathic pain, as well as treatment options.
Neuropathic Pain Causes
A person with peripheral neuropathy may experience pain in their extremities.
A multitude of medical diseases can induce nerve injury, resulting in neuropathic pain. Here are two such examples:
Diabetes, cancer and cancer therapies such as chemotherapy, neurological afflictions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, and stroke are examples of chronic diseases. Among the diseases are shingles, HIV, leprosy, and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Injury can cause tissue and nerve damage, as well as severe nerve strain. This can occur following surgery or as a result of a catastrophic incident such as spinal cord trauma.
Nerve damage and neuropathic pain can be caused by some infections, such as shingles.
Excessive alcohol usage can also induce neuropathy. This may be due to the fact that alcohol induces both dietary inadequacies and toxic nerve damage.
Certain medicines can occasionally produce neuropathic pain, but in some situations, no evident explanation can be found.
There are several kinds of neuropathic pain
Neuropathy affects various nerves and bodily locations in different ways.
Multiple mono neuropathy refers to damage to two or more nerves in discrete regions, whereas mono neuropathy refers to damage to a single nerve.
The most common cause of polyneuropathy is nerve injury to many nerves.
The sections that follow will look at several types of neuropathy and explain which regions of the body they typically affect.
Damage to the nerves in the limbs
Peripheral neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that affects the peripheral nerves of the nervous system. The peripheral nervous system transmits information from the brain to the rest of the body.
Peripheral neuropathy can affect the extremities of the body, including the feet, legs, arms, and hands.
Neuropathy is caused by autonomic dysfunction
Autonomic neuropathy is a neurological disease that affects the nerves that govern internal organs and crucial activities including digestion and breathing.
The heart, blood pressure, and digestive system can all be affected by autonomic neuropathy.
Neuropathy with a narrow focus
Focal neuropathy is defined as a solitary nerve damage in one of the following body regions:
- The head and the hand
- Torsos and Limbs
Bell’s palsy is a kind of focal neuropathy. This condition produces one-sided facial paralysis or weakening.
Double vision, as well as abrupt weakness or discomfort in the front of the thigh and other portions of the body, can all be symptoms of focal neuropathy.
Proximal neuropathy is a rare kind of persistent nerve injury. This form of nerve damage usually affects only one side of the body, such as the hip, buttock, or thigh.
Proximal neuropathy can cause excruciating pain, trouble moving, muscle and weight loss, and other symptoms.
Neuropathy caused by diabetes
Diabetes causes an increase in blood sugar levels in the body. Over time, this could cause harm to the blood vessels that transport oxygen and nutrients to the neurons.
A shortage of oxygen and nutrition impairs normal nerve function.
Diabetic neuropathy can encompass any of the above-mentioned kinds of neuropathy, but peripheral neuropathy affects up to 50% of diabetic patients.
Compression A compression injury or a blood vessel infection can both induce mono neuropathy, a type of nerve damage. Blood vessel constriction can restrict blood supply to the nerves, lowering their function.
Nerve compression can result from an accident or from repetitive tension on the nerve as it travels through a joint or a limited channel in the body.
Carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by compression of the median nerve at the wrist, is the most prevalent example.
Tingling, numbness, or swelling of the fingers may occur, especially when using the hands or sleeping.
The Phantom Limb Syndrome
Phantom limb syndrome is a kind of neuropathic pain. A person who has lost a limb may experience physical or mental pain. The pain may be searing, prickling, or shooting.
Approximately 80% of amputation patients suffer from phantom limb syndrome. Mixed signals from the brain and spinal cord can induce phantom limb syndrome.
Symptoms usually go away 6 months following surgery, but they can last for years.
Compression or damage to the trigeminal nerve in the head can result in trigeminal neuralgia. A stroke, MS, or facial surgery can all cause damage to the trigeminal nerve.
This kind of neuropathy can cause acute facial pain. Everyday tasks such as brushing one’s teeth and washing one’s face might create pain.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a side effect of shingles. PHN can affect areas of the body that have previously been afflicted with shingles.
The elderly are more vulnerable to PHN, which affects 10% to 18% of shingles patients.
Thoracic or lumbar radiculopathy (thoracic or lumbar)
Thoracic or lumbar radiculopathy is a form of mono neuropathy that affects one or both sides of the chest or abdomen wall.
Type 2 diabetes patients are more likely to develop this type of neuropathy. They typically recover naturally over time.
- Excruciating pain that feels like it’s shooting, throbbing, or burning
- Tingling or “pins and needles” sensations;
- Restricted use of senses, such as trouble sensing temperature Itching from mottled or red skin
Patients with neuropathic pain may develop hypersensitivity to touch. Minor friction or pressure on the garment, as well as a little touch, might produce nerve irritation and pain.
Chronic pain can disrupt daily life and lower a person’s quality of life. Some of the negative impacts of neuropathic pain include inability to sleep owing to discomfort, sadness, and anxiety.
Some neuropathy symptoms will go away with time. Treatment or control of the underlying cause may aid in the reduction of neuropathic pain symptoms.
Chronic neuropathic pain patients may require treatment to ease severe or incapacitating symptoms.
Pregabalin 100mg drugs are frequently used to treat neuropathic pain.
Pregalin 50mg is another drug that may help reduce nerve pain.
Common treatments include patch lidocaine injections or nerve blocks including steroids, opioids, and anaesthetics.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy may also be recommended by a doctor. A TENS machine delivers a modest electrical impulse to the painful location via an electrode attached to the skin.
The impulse may excite certain nerves while suppressing pain signals. This can aid with muscular relaxation and pain alleviation.
If a TENS unit does not work, consider utilising percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS). A health expert uses a needle to put the electrode in PENS and TENS beneath the skin rather than on top of it.
Some persons who suffer from neuropathic pain may benefit from acupuncture
This may stimulate the neural system and trigger a healing response, resulting in pain relief.
Surgery can aid in the treatment of severe nerve injury such as compression mononeuropathy.
Finally, nerve injury or loss can induce neuropathic pain. The symptoms’ severity might range from slight to severe.
Symptoms include burning or shooting pain, tingling, numbness, or loss of sensation.
Pain medication, electric stimulation, and, in some situations, surgery are among treatment possibilities.
Some types of neuropathic pain improve or disappear with time, while others require long-term pain care.